There are various kinds of berries consumed regularly. Raspberry, gooseberry, blueberry, strawberry, cranberry, and grapes are some of the most consumed and nutritionally rich berries.
Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is a berry common in the Mediterranean diet because of its high nutritional content and health benefits. It is a seasonal fruit crop growing from early summer to early autumn. (1)
It forms a rosette and belongs to the rose family. It is believed to be originated in Europe as an accidental cross between North American and Chile species.
Strawberries are rich in antioxidants like anthocyanin, vitamin C, ellagitannins, quercetin, and catechin. It is also a good source of minerals like potassium. It has low calorie and fat content. (2)
The ripe strawberry is bright red, whereas the unripe strawberry is green-white. The fruit tastes sweet when fully grown and sour when unripe.
Strawberries are consumed fresh and raw. These are also consumed as dessert, jam, and jelly.
The fruit has been effective against inflammation, proliferation, enzyme inhibition, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also suitable for consumption by diabetic individuals. (3)
Strawberries are nutritionally dense fruits that have a good amount of minerals and vitamins. The fruit is juicy because 100 g of the fruit has 90.8 g of water. (3)
The calorie content in strawberries is very low, i.e., 100 g of strawberries provide only 36 Kcal calories. Likewise, fat content and protein content in the fruit is also low; 100 g of strawberries has 0.64 g of protein and 0.22 g of fat. (2,4)
|Name||Amount||Daily Requirements for Adults|
|Energy||36 Kcal||2000-2,500 Kcal|
|Protein||0.64 g||50-70 grams*|
|Total fat||0.22 g||60-80 g|
|Carbohydrate||7.96 g||300-375 g|
* National Academy of Medicine recommends that adults get a minimum of 0.8 grams of protein for every kilogram of body weight per day.
Vitamins C and B7 are found in strawberries. 100 g of strawberries has 59.6 g of vitamin C, which is why the fruit is considered a good source of vitamin C.
|Vitamin C||59.6 g||75 mg -90 mg*|
|Biotin (vitamin B7)||<3.7 mcg||30 mcg*|
* Adequate intake (AI) level determined by National Academy of Medicine.
Calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorous are present in good amounts in strawberries. 100 g of strawberries has 17 mg of calcium, 23 mg of phosphorus, 12.5 mg of magnesium, and 161 mg of potassium. (2)
Iron, sodium, copper, zinc, and manganese are also found in trace amounts in strawberries. 100 g of strawberries has 0.26 mg of iron, less than 2 mg of sodium, 0.035 mg of copper, 0.11 mg of zinc, and 0.368 mg of manganese. (2)
|Name||Amount||Daily Requirements for Adults|
|Calcium, ca||17 mg||1,000 – 1,200 mg|
|Iron, Fe||0.26 mg||8 mg-18 mg|
|Magnesium, Mg||12.5 mg||310-420 mg|
|Phosphorous, P||23 mg||700 mg|
|Potassium, K||161 mg||2,600 – 3,400 mg*|
|Sodium, Na||<2 mg||<2,300 mg*|
*Adequate intake level determined by National Academy of Medicine.
Strawberries also have different organic acids like citric, malic, oxalic, pyruvic, and quinic acids. 100 g of strawberries has 700 mg of citric acid, 198 mg of malic acid, and less than 40 mg of oxalic, pyruvic, and quinic acids. (2)
|Citric acids||700 mg|
|Malic acids||198 mg|
|Oxalic acids||<40 mg|
|Pyruvic acids||<40 mg|
|Quinic acid||<40 mg|
Strawberries have many phytochemicals like ellagitannins, anthocyanin, catechin, and quercetin. It has a good amount of vitamin C that also acts as an antioxidant. Its consumption is also suitable for people with diabetes because of its low sugar content.
Furthermore, its consumption is effective against different cardiovascular diseases and has inflammatory properties. A detailed description of the health benefits carried by the consumption of strawberries are as follows:
- Can have anti-inflammatory properties: Strawberry extracts are known to reduce the COX enzymes in vitro, which can help control the inflammatory process in animal studies. (5)
- May be effective against cardiovascular diseases: Consumption of strawberries can help protect against cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease and oxidative-mediated cardiovascular dysfunctions. (6) A review conducted on five intervention studies reported that the consumption of strawberries positively affects the distribution and size of blood lipids in strawberry consumption in obese subjects. (7) Sixty postmenopausal women reported strawberry consumption decreased systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and antioxidant effects. (7)
- Antioxidant activities: The phenolics in strawberries include detoxifying free radicals by blocking their production, cell survival, and proliferation. (8) These compounds also help in protecting and repairing DNA repair. (8)
- May positively impact the aging brain: Animal studies suggest that consuming strawberries and their extract helps benefit the aging brain. (5) However, more studies on humans are required to understand its benefit in human cognitive health.
- Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M. The strawberry: Composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. Nutrition. 2012Jan;28(1):9–19.
- Fooddata Central Search Results [Internet]. FoodData Central. USDA; 2022 [cited 2023Mar5]. Available from: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/2346409/nutrients
- Kjersti Aaby, Siv Fagertun Remberg, Chapter 19 – Strawberry Phenolics and Impact of Ripening, Editor(s): Victor Preedy, Processing and Impact on Active Components in Food, Academic Press, 2015, Pages 157-164, ISBN 9780124046993, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-404699-3.00019-6. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124046993000196)
- Institute of Medicine 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11537.
- HANNUM SANDRAM. Potential impact of strawberries on human health: A review of the science. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2004;44(1):1–17.
- Erukainure OL, Salau VF, Oyenihi AB, Mshicileli N, Islam MS. Strawberry Fruit ( fragaria x ananassa cv. Romina) extenuates iron‐induced cardiac oxidative injury via effects on redox balance, angiotensin‐converting enzyme, purinergic activities, and metabolic pathways. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2020;44(8).
- Miller K, Feucht W, Schmid M. Bioactive compounds of strawberry and blueberry and their potential health effects based on Human Intervention Studies: A brief overview. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1510.
- Giampieri F, Forbes-Hernandez TY, Gasparrini M, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Afrin S, Bompadre S, et al. Strawberry as a health promoter: An Evidence Based Review. Food & Function. 2015May;6(5):1386–98.